The History of Alexandria, Virginia in the 20th Century.
In 1940, sand hoppers from a concrete business could be seen on the Alexandria waterfront. This site, on The Strand, is now a City park at the foot of Prince Street.
The 500 Block of King Street in 1928.
New neighborhoods sprang up around the outskirts of the city by the turn of the century. Local industries included the Robert Portner Brewing Company, the Old Dominion glass works, the Virginia Marine Railway and Shipbuilding Company, and Potomac Yard, one of the largest rail facilities in the country. The U.S. Naval Torpedo Station, now the
Torpedo Factory Art Center , was built during World War I and was expanded during World War II, with large industrial buildings dominating Alexandria's waterfront. A Ford Motor Company warehouse at the south end of the waterfront was also converted to military use during World War II.
The Second World War brought tremendous growth and change to the Washington area and to northern Virginia. National Airport was constructed at the beginning of the war on Alexandria's northern edge, the former site of Abingdon plantation. Thousands of people from all over the country poured into the region as the government expanded and Alexandria became one of many "bedroom communities" serving the capital city. This growth set the tone for the post-war period, as well, which has seen even greater development of Alexandria and her surrounding communities.
Today, Alexandria still retains much of its historic character. Many late 18th- and early 19th-century townhouses and warehouses remain in the "Old Town" section of the city, along the west bank of the Potomac River. While still a residential area for many Federal employees, Alexandria is also home to many national associations, corporations, restaurants, shops and other businesses. Many old landmarks have become museums, historic sites and art galleries. Public parks line the waterfront and the river is actively used by fishermen and recreational boaters. Visitors to the National Capitol area find that Alexandria serves as a quaint change of pace from the hectic hustle of downtown Washington, a place to relax and discover what the region was like many years ago.
A Timeline of Alexandria History can be seen in the Torpedo Factory Arcade, on the waterfront at the base of King Street.
Union Station opens
Potomac Yard opens, and becomes one of the busiest railyards on the Eastern seaboard
Town of Potomac is founded, comprised of the street-car suburbs of Del Ray and St. Elmo
Orville Wright demonstrates his flying machine for the U. S. Army by flying from Fort Meyer in Arlington to Shuter’s Hill and back.
1915 Annexation of the Braddock and Rosemont sections of Alexandria.
The Naval Torpedo Station (now the Torpedo Factory Art Center) opens on the Alexandria waterfront to build and repair this new type of weapon.
Parker-Gray School, named for Alexandria educators, opens to serve Alexandria’s African American students.
1929 American Legion Post #24 purchases historic
Gadsby’s Tavern and preserves it from demolition.
1930 Annexation of the Town of Potomac, now the
Del Ray neighborhood.
George Washington Masonic Memorial is dedicated atop Shuter’s Hill.
George Washington Memorial Parkway opens, connecting Washington D.C. with Mount Vernon and using Washington Street as its course through Alexandria.
sit-down strike at the segregated Barrett Library on Queen Street is the first organized act of civil disobedience in what became the Civil Rights movement.
John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers of America purchases
1940 Robert Robinson Library (now the
Alexandria Black History Museum) built for the city’s African American residents.
Naval Torpedo Station reopens to produce munitions throughout World War II.
1941 Under the Lend-Lease Act, surplus torpedoes from Alexandria are sent to Great Britain.
1942-1945 New housing built for workers in the war effort includes
Parkfairfax, where future presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford would later live as junior members of congress.
1946 Old Town becomes the nation's third
Historic District, after New Orleans and Charleston.
1952 Annexation of areas that were formerly part of Fairfax County, giving Alexandria its current shape. Areas south of the Interstate remain in Fairfax County, despite their Alexandria post-office addresses.
1955 Construction begins on the Capital Beltway and the
Woodrow Wilson Bridge, crossing the Potomac River, is dedicated in 1961.
1961 Future rock star
Jim Morrison of the band The Doors graduates from
George Washington High School in Alexandria.
Fort Ward, one of the largest Union forts in the Defenses of Washington, is restored by the City of Alexandria for the Civil War Centennial.
1966 Old Town Alexandria designated a
National Historic Landmark.
1971 After desegregation, T.C. Williams High School wins state football championship and captures national fame in 2000 in the film, “
Remember the Titans.”
Gerald Ford becomes U.S. President and serves his first 10 days while still living in his Alexandria home on Crown View Drive.
1974 The old Alexandria Naval Torpedo Stations reopens as the
Torpedo Factory Art Center.
1975 Alexandria establishes the country’s first archaeological commission, leading to the development of the
Alexandria Archaeology Museum.
1976 As part of the City’s bicentennial celebration, the City restores and opens
Gadsby’s Tavern Museum and
The Lyceum, Alexandria’s History Museum.
1983 King Street
Metro station opens.
Parker-Gray Historic District is established in an historically black neighborhood.
2001 Alexandria emergency service personnel respond to terrorist attacks of September 11th at the nearby Pentagon.
2007 Archaeologists recover a 13,000-year old
Clovis spearpoint discarded by a Native American hunter. The stone tool is the earliest evidence of human presence in present-day Alexandria.
2011-2015 Alexandria commemorates the
Civil War sesquicentennial.
2012-2014 Alexandria commemorates the
War of 1812.
Prior to the famous Woolworth counter sit-in in Greensboro, North Carolina, five courageous African-American youths staged the first deliberate and planned sit-in at the Alexandria “public” Library on August 21, 1939.
Alexandria's black population increased during and after the Civil War, as part of the Northern Migration. In the 20th century, African Americans formed vibrant communities, with social life often centered around their churches. As blacks across America fought for Civil RIghts, the country's first Sit-Down Strike took place at the Alexandria Library in 1939. The historic African American community known as Uptown was designated as the Parker-Gray District in 1984, and in 2008 was approved for listing on the Virginia Landmarks Register. It is expected to join the Old and Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places.
First Lady Betty Ford (center) at Gadsby's Tavern, October 16, 1975. To her right is Bill Adam, who was curator of the museum at the time. The Fords lived at Parkfairfax from 1951-1955, and at 514 Crown View Drive from 1955 until they moved to the Whitehouse in 1974. (Courtesy Gerald Ford Library.)
The Alexandria Legacies Project is one way that Alexandrians hare their memories of life in Alexandria.
Urban Renewal, 400 Block King Street, north side. Gadsby's Tavern can be seen at the center of the photo, with City Hall across the street, on the right.
By the 1920s, Alexandria was a quiet little southern town, but one with an especially rich heritage. Seeking to capitalize on this history and tap into the stream of tourists who traveled through Alexandria regularly on their way to Mount Vernon, local American Legion Post 24 purchased the old City Hotel as their headquarters and museum. The building had once been known as Gadsby's Tavern and had served a distinguished clientele including George Washington, the Marquis de Lafayette and Thomas Jefferson. Fired by the same spirit that was guiding the restorations at Colonial Williamsburg, Gadsby's Tavern reopened to the public with a colonial costume ball in 1932, the bicentennial of Washington's birth. The American Legion's purchase and restoration of Gadsby's Tavern was part of the fledgling preservation movement beginning to take hold in Alexandria that later blossomed in the face of urban renewal in the 1960s.
During the mid-1960s, the City's leadership began to remake the old colonial port into a modern city as many of the oldest parts of town were redeveloped. Market Square, where public markets were held since the town's founding, was cleared of 18th- and 19th-century buildings except for the 1872 City Hall, and the block was excavated to hide a parking garage under the new Square. Across South Royal Street, most of the block was similarly demolished and excavated for a series of boutiques and retail stores named Tavern Square (the development being adjacent to Gadsby's Tavern.) As the wrecking balls swung, Alexandria's preservation movement grew, forcing city government to protect some of the community's landmarks. Among the buildings saved and restored during this period were The Torpedo Factory Art Center, The Lyceum and the Carlyle House, which joined Gadsby's Tavern in undergoing extensive renovations in time for the nation's Bicentennial in 1976.
The Old and Historic District, designated in 1946, was the third historic district in the United States, after Charleston and New Orleans. The historic African American community known as Uptown was designated as the Parker-Gray District in 1984, and in 2008 was approved for listing on the Virginia Landmarks Register. It is expected to join the Old and Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places.
Oral Histories of the Historic Preservation Movement:
C. Richard Bierce
Robert Montague, III
and Marian Van Landingham
National Register Historic District: Town of Potomac. The Town of Potomac was incorporated In 1908, joining the neighborhoods of Del Ray and St. Elmo. It was annexed by the City of Alexandria in 1930. The Town of Potomac was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.
The Old and Historic District was designated in 1946 to preserve Alexandria's early architecture, but, since that time, 20th century neighborhoods have also been recognized for their historic and architectural significance.
The final torpedo made at the Naval Torpedo Station, Alexandria, in 1945
Alexandria was once home to the largest railroad switching yard on the east coast, the Waterfront was dominated by industry including the Torpedo Factory (now an Art Center) and a Ford Motor Plant, and streetcar lines connected new suburbs with the Nation's capitol.
Bicentennial parade passes Gadsby's Tavern, 1976.
Alexandria was incorporated in 1749, and large celebrations commemorated Alexandria's Bicentennial in 1949, and its 250th anniversary in 1999. The town also celebrated the Commonwealth of Virginia's Tercentennial in 1907 and the nation's Bicentennial in 1976. Over the next few years, we will be commemorating the Civil War Sesquicentennial (2011-2015) and the Bicentennial of the War of 1812 (2012-2015).
James Oliver Petitt of southern Fairfax County in front of his stall at the old City Market. One of three generations to operate the stall.
The Farmers' Market has been in operation since 1751. The current City Hall building was constructed in 1871. The building was originally U-shaped around a central courtyard. Markets Stalls were located on the first floors of the west and north wings and in the courtyard. In 1967, as part of the Urban Renewal project, the City Hall building was enlarged and the current brick plaza and fountain were constructed.
You can still shop at the
Old Town Farmer's Market on Saturday mornings, year round.
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Office of Historic Alexandria
Lloyd House220 North Washington StreetAlexandria, VA 22314703.746.4554Fax: 703.838.6451Email
Office HoursMonday - Friday8 a.m. to 5 p.m.