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Alexandria Archaeology Museum
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Alexandria Archaeology Bibliography

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Sanders, Suzanne and Kathleen M. Child 

Sanders, Suzanne L., Martha R. Williams, and Lori Ricard 

Schweigert, Kurt P. 

  • 1998 - West End. Prepared for Norfolk Southern Corporation (Carlyle Project).

West End Village/Carlyle Project, approximately 1500–2400 blocks of Duke Street 

The Norfolk Southern Corporation provided this compilation of the archaeology and history of the West End—the historic unincorporated community outside Alexandria’s city limits, annexed in 1915. It served as the culmination of Norfolk Southern’s support of archaeological investigation for its Carlyle Project, which included the West End Village that stood in the 18th century. 

Seifert, Donna J., Ph.D. 

  • 1992 - Phase Ia Archeological Assessment for the Consolidation of the Naval Systems Commands, Alexandria and Arlington County, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Seifert, Donna J., Ph.D., Cecile G. Glendening and Walton Owen 

Spring Garden/Southern Plaza/Old Town Village (railyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War; residence), four blocks bounded by Duke, Henry, Wilkes, and Payne streets 

The planned construction of a mixed-use development precipitated archaeological investigation. The four-block area included a portion of the 19th-century Orange and Alexandria Railroad, taken over by the United States Military Railroad during the Civil War. Up until the early 20th century, the area served two purposes: industrial and residential. After 1912, the Southern Railway had sole possession of the land. Archaeologists recommended further study, including archival research, though they noted that, because USMRR structures were frame and occupation temporary, evidence of the military presence would be near nil. (Note: Researchers also should review the other report for Spring Garden and the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, including 44AX103 and 105, Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company, and Whole Foods/Royalton Project [44AX190].) 

Seifert, Donna J. and Kerri Culhane 

Duke Street Tannery/Marriott Residence Inn (butchery/slaughterhouse; tannery; store; possible tenant residence), 1456 Duke Street, 44AX188 

The proposed erection of a Marriott Residence Inn prompted archaeologists to complete two phases of investigation: documentary study followed by excavation. The site’s location in the West End, an unincorporated community outside the city limits until its 1915 annexation, made it the prime location for slaughtering and tanning. The Duke Street Tannery/Tanyard operated from circa 1796 to the mid-19th century, burning down in 1853. Key to the development of the West End was the village’s location on Little River Turnpike (now Duke Street) and Hooff’s Run, a navigable waterway with access to Alexandria’s port (via Hunting Creek). Archival research confirmed that the site gave way to commercial and residential functions after its tanning days. A two-story frame store (1456 Duke St.) appeared in 1902 and 1921 maps; the 1921 map also showed an adjacent brick house thought to be the tenement illustrated on an 1845 map. Since the 1930s, the store structure sustained several additions and alterations, making the discovery of ground disturbance during excavation likely. Archaeologists found no significant artifacts or features. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX188.)  

Shephard, Steven J. 

  • 2006 - Reaching for the Channel: Some Documentary and Archaeological Evidence of Extending the Alexandria Waterfront. The Alexandria Chronicle, Spring, 1-13.
  • 1999 - Urbanization: Nineteenth Century Change, Twentieth Century Archaeology. In The Archaeology of 19th-Century Virginia, T. R. Reinhart and J. H. Sprinkle, Jr., editors. Special Publication Number 36, Archaeological Society of Virginia .
  • 1994 - The Resurrection of the Alexandria Canal Tidal Lock and the Role of the Canal in the City’s Past and Present, in Canals and American Cities: Assessing the Impact of Canals on the Course of American Urban Life, R. C. Carlisle, editor. Canal History and Technology Press, Easton, Pennsylvania.
  • 1990 - Report of Archaeological Excavations At the Lloyd House. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 12.
  • 1989 Obtaining Water and Discarding Waste: An Overview of Attitudes and Practices in Nineteenth Century Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 4.
  • 1988 Development of a City-Site: Alexandria, Virginia, 1750-1850. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 16.
  • 1986 Status Variation in Antebellum Alexandria: An Archaeological Study of Ceramic Tableware, in Socio-economic Status and Consumer Choices: Perspectives in Historical Archaeology, edited by Suzanne Spencer-Wood. Plenum Publishing Co, New York.
  • 1985 Status Variation in Antebellum Alexandria: An Archaeological Study of Ceramic Tableware. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 18.  
  • 1985 An Archaeological Study of Socioeconomic Stratification: Status Change in 19th Century Alexandria, Virginia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. University Microfilms Intl., Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Shephard, Steven J. and Francine W. Bromberg 

  • 2006 - The Quaker Burying Ground in Alexandria , Virginia: A Study of Burial Practices of the Religious Society of Friends. Daring Experiments: Issues and Insights about Utopian Communities, T. Van Buren, editor. Historical Archaeology 40 (1): 57-88.

Shephard, Steven J. and Pamela J. Cressey, Eds. 

  • 1985 - Alexandria Antiquity 1984. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 100.

Shomette, Donald G. 

This report provided a history of Alexandria’s maritime past, including its founding by merchants and its prominence as a commercial center then its decline. Following the historical discussion was an investigation of the city’s underwater archaeological resources. (Note: Researchers also should review the report for Waterfront. Additionally, researchers should read Donald G. Shomette’s 1995 updated publication of the same title.) 

Sipe, Boyd 

“The Hump” Neighborhood/James Bland Homes/Parker-Gray Historic District (residence, including possible slave/tenant/freed black/contraband; farm; housing project), 918 North Columbus Street, 44AX211 and 212 

The property on which the James Bland Homes were built in the 1950s—now in the Parker-Gray Historic District—belonged to members of the Alexander family from the late 17th–early 18th century. Their slaves or tenants also may have lived or worked on the property. Between the late 18th and mid-19th century, other prominent Alexandrians owned portions of the property; slaves or tenants, including freed blacks/contrabands, also may have been present during these occupations. Several buildings appeared near or within the site on Civil War-era maps. No archaeological evidence of these structures was found during the Phase I investigation. Archaeologists put forth the possibility that refugees fleeing slavery settled in the project area in shanty towns during the Civil War. Residential development occurred in the second half of the 19th century, and some of the area became known as “The Hump.” Most residents during this period were black, but, by the turn of the 20th century, half of the Hump (and 70 percent of the project area) was black. By the early 1940s, “slum clearance” had begun in Alexandria. Homes were condemned and a wartime trailer camp established. Then, in 1954, the first Bland Homes were built. The neighborhood, including the public housing project, became almost entirely African American. Excavation revealed significant ground disturbance and filling, but archaeologists were able to identify two sites: 44AX211, a scatter of historic refuse contained within a plowzone with ceramic, glass, metal, bone, and shell artifacts from the late 18th/early 19th–early 20th century and two features that were not explored fully, and 44AX212, an area of preserved brickwork dating to the early 20th century or earlier. Findings elsewhere in the project area included ceramic, glass, metal, bone, and shell artifacts plus five prehistoric artifacts; all of these findings emanated from secondary deposits fill contexts, post-dating the abandonment of the site in the 1940s. Construction monitoring and Phase II work were recommended in specific places. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX211 and 212.) 

Sipe, Boyd and Kimberly Snyder 

“The Hump” Neighborhood/James Bland Homes/Parker-Gray Historic District (residence, including possible slave/tenant/freed black/contraband; farm; housing project), 918 North Columbus Street, 44AX211 and 212 

The property on which the James Bland Homes were built in the 1950s—now in the Parker-Gray Historic District—belonged to members of the Alexander family from the late 17th–early 18th century. Their slaves or tenants also may have lived or worked on the property. Between the late 18th and mid-19th century, other prominent Alexandrians owned portions of the property; slaves or tenants, including freed blacks/contrabands, also may have been present during these occupations. Several buildings appeared near or within the site on Civil War-era maps. No archaeological evidence of these structures was found during the Phase I investigation. Archaeologists put forth the possibility that refugees fleeing slavery settled in the project area in shanty towns during the Civil War. Residential development occurred in the second half of the 19th century, and some of the area became known as “The Hump.” Most residents during this period were black, but, by the turn of the 20th century, half of the Hump (and 70 percent of the project area) was black. By the early 1940s, “slum clearance” had begun in Alexandria. Homes were condemned and a wartime trailer camp established. Then, in 1954, the first Bland Homes were built. The neighborhood, including the public housing project, became almost entirely African American. Excavation revealed significant ground disturbance and filling, but archaeologists were able to identify two sites: 44AX211, a scatter of historic refuse contained within a plowzone with ceramic, glass, metal, bone, and shell artifacts from the late 18th/early 19th–early 20th century and two features that were not explored fully, and 44AX212, an area of preserved brickwork dating to the early 20th century or earlier. Findings elsewhere in the project area included ceramic, glass, metal, bone, and shell artifacts plus five prehistoric artifacts; all of these findings emanated from secondary deposits fill contexts, post-dating the abandonment of the site in the 1940s. Construction monitoring and Phase II work were recommended in specific places. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX211 and 212.)  

Slaughter, Bernard W., George L. Miller and Meta Janowitz 

  • 2001 - Archaeological Investigations to Define the Boundaries of Freedmen's Cemetery (44 AX179), Within the Property owned by the Virginia Department of Transportation Alexandria, Virginia. The Potomac Crossing Consultants.

Slusser, H. Robert 

  • 1996 - Mr. Lincoln’s railroad Car: An Alexandria artifact. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 76. Order from Museum Shop 
  • 1992 - A Street Guide to the Buildings and Sites Pictured in Alexander J. Wedderburn’s “Souvenir Virginia Tercentennial 1607-1907 of Historic Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 47.

Smith, Jeremy and David Carroll 

Snow, Carol 

  • 1989 - Alexandria Archaeology Conservation Survey: Report on a Collection Survey Conducted June 6 - August 25, 1989.

Soldo, David J. and Martha R. Williams 

Corbett and O’Neal Brickyard/Gunston Hall Apartments (brickyard), 900 block of South Washington Street 

Phase I investigation of the block bounded by Green, Washington, Church, and Columbus streets, encompassing approximately 2.3 acres, included archival research, survey, testing, and lab analysis. Prior to redevelopment of the project area, archaeologists worked to identify any graves associated with the adjacent circa 1864–1869 Freedmen’s Cemetery and remains of the Corbett and O’Neal brickyard, which occupied the block after 1875. Archaeologists came across no evidence of surviving grave shafts nor any intact features related to the brickyard. Thus the report recommended no further study there; however, it did suggest that work continue along the Church Street perimeter of the property. A 2003 appendix to the report detailed this inquiry. No intact deposits or features were found, eliminating the need for future investigation. 

Stevens, J. Sanderson 

  • 1991 - Phase Ib Archaeological Survey for the Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.

Stevens, J. Sanderson, Alice C. Crampton, Diane E. Halsall, Elizabeth A. Crowell and J. Lee Cos, Jr. 

  • 1996 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project Improvement Study: Integrated Cultural Resources Technical Report. Architectural/Historic Resources Identification and Determination of Effect Report and Phase Ia and Ib Terrestrial and Underwater Archaeological Investigations. Vol II (Appendices). Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia

Stevens, J. Sanderson, Diane E. Halsall and Ronald J. Bowers 

  • 1997 - Addendum Woodrow Wilson Bridge Improvement Study Background Research and Remote Sensing Investigations Freedmen's or Contraband Cemetery (44AX179) Alexandria, Virginia. Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia.

Straka, Jeffrey and Michael Clem 

Weicking Property (Civil War encampment), 701 and 702 (Area B), 704 and 705 (Area A) Arell Court 

Phase I evaluation of four lots to be developed into single-family houses resulted in Civil War and other historic artifacts, including a silver German coin and 0.58 caliber Minie balls, but no features. Recovered during construction monitoring were several bullets, a New York regiment button, and an axe head, among other finds. Archaeologists established a connection between this property and two previously identified Civil War encampment sites—44AX193 on N. Quaker Ln. and 44AX195 (Quaker Ridge)—suggesting that 193, 195, and the project area belonged to the same larger Union encampment. The slope of the land and the wet soil conditions discouraged future fieldwork, not to mention the discovery that the area had been heavily collected in the past. (Note: Researchers also should review the site reports for 206 North Quaker Lane [44AX193] and Quaker Ridge [44AX195].)  

Tolson, Sarah 

Carlyle House (residence), 121 North Fairfax Street, 44AX3 

Earnest Wagar undertook the reconstruction of the 1753 house in 1906 as a house museum. It fell into decline until 1974 when the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority preserved it to the period of John Carlyle’s lifetime (mid- to late 18th century) as a historic site within a public park. The NVRPA plan of action involved demolishing the mid-19th-century Mansion House Hotel on the property and remodeling the adjacent Bank of Alexandria. Demolishing the hotel brought the previously obscured house into view. The office and kitchen dependencies were demolished previously in 1855. This report detailed the house’s construction and design influences and offered a history of the property and house itself, including its remodelings and occupations. Results of the archaeological investigation included such features as well shafts and privies holding ceramics, glasswares, bottles, and other artifacts dating to or close to the lifetime of Carlyle. These emanated from both the house property and the Mansion House Hotel/Bank of Alexandria. A separate draft archaeological report presented a history of the site along with a study and catalogue of the artifacts. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX3.) 

Traum, Sarah, Joseph Balicki and Brian Corle 

L’Ouverture Hospital/Shiloh Baptist Church (residence; slave jail; Civil War soldiers’ prison and freed black/contraband hospital and barracks; African American residence; black Baptist church), 1323 Duke Street 

Prior to putting an addition onto this historic structure for senior housing, archaeologists studied the 3,500-square-foot lot, which had been part of a much larger parcel. On this larger parcel stood Robert Young’s three-story brick house (1315), which expanded into the Franklin and Armfield slave-trading business. Other slave traders then operated here until Union forces took the property in 1861. Between late 1863 and early 1864, the Union Army built L’Ouverture Hospital for non-white soldiers and civilians in the block surrounding the slave jail/soldiers’ prison; it functioned through 1867. One of the long barrack-tent structures occupied by recovering soldiers and civilians stood on this lot. In subdividing the parcel, the southwest corner (1323) was sold to an African American laborer in 1884. The house he built passed through a few hands until Shiloh Baptist Church bought it in 1957. This report noted the intertwined history of L’Ouverture Hospital and Shiloh; the congregation met in the hospital mess house before the first church went up in 1865. Shovel tests revealed the original ground surface to be gone, eliminating the need for further examination of the study area. 

Wagner, Daniel P. 

Dash Bus Facility, 3000–3100 Business Center Drive 

Pedological and geoarchaeological studies aimed to pinpoint the project area’s original ground surface within the current, artificially constructed landscape. Soil corings showed that the area had sustained significant ground disturbances and filling, making the finding of any cultural resources—especially in situ—nearly impossible. 

  • 2003 - Sedimentological and Geomorphological Interpretations of Borings along a Planned Outfall Pipe at the Potomac Greens Development in Alexandria, Virginia. Geo-Sci Consultants, Inc. University Park, Maryland.
  • 2000 - Pedology, Geomorphology, and Landscape Reconstruction at Jones Point Park in Alexandria, Virginia. Geo-Sci Consultants, Inc.

Walker, Mark K., Elizabeth A. Crowell, Madeleine Pappas, Jesse Daugherty and Christopher Martin 

Alfred Street Baptist Church/“The Bottoms” Neighborhood (African American residence; first black Baptist church north of Richmond, VA), 313 South Alfred Street, 44AX161 

Archaeological survey and testing of the site revealed a builder’s trench for the mid-19th-century church and cultural remains, which provided some insight into African American life in “The Bottoms” neighborhood. An architectural review of the church uncovered unusual features, shedding light on the building techniques of the day. Construction monitoring wrapped up work at the site, which resulted in the discovery of a well. 

Walker, Mark K. and Timothy J. Dennée 

Shuter’s Hill Brewery/Klein’s Brewery/Englehardt’s Brewery/Carlyle Project Area II-B (brewery; tavern), 2016 Duke Street, 44AX35 

In 1979, during the bulldozing of the site’s commercial and government warehouses, the ventilation shaft of Shuter’s Hill Brewery (1858–1892) was discovered. Despite a fire in 1893 and subsequent demolitions, archaeologists found additional brewery and tavern remains: the brewery basement, partially filled remains of the lager beer cellar, and partially collapsed and filled passageway connecting the two. Excavations of these ten acres of Carlyle Project Area II-B yielded 6,792 artifacts: architectural elements like brick and wood pieces, flat copper alloy and iron fragments, floor tile, synthetic tile, window glass, drainpipe bits, hinges, nails, agateware doorknobs, and personal items, including a buckle, comb, buttons, and pipe stems. Many artifacts related to the tavern: bottles mostly bearing the embossed names of breweries other than Shuter’s (like Robert Portner Brewery), stoneware bottles and fragments for ginger ale or mineral water, wine bottles and whiskey flasks, and glass beer mug and tumbler fragments. Shuter’s Brewery, also called Klein’s Brewery and Englehardt’s Brewery, was probably the earliest lager beer brewery in Virginia and the largest Virginia brewery of the Civil War period. This site report stressed Shuter’s standing as one of a few American breweries with an intact mason beer cellar studied by archaeologists, the best preserved brewery site in Alexandria or even the region, and one of the few brewery sites remaining in the country from pre-Civil War lager-brewing days. This document also incorporated accounts of the history and techniques of early brewing in America. Note: Unrelated finds included the remains of late 19th- and 20th-century tenements and rental houses, a late 19th- and 20th-century glass factory, and even a single lithic flake. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for Robert Portner Brewing Company [44AX196] and Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley.) 

Walker, Mark K. and Marilyn Harper 

Potomac Yard (possible prehistoric area; residence, including tenant; farm; possible cemetery; canal; railyard; United States Military Railroad, Civil War; possible rail/train station) 

Archival study of the project area, thought to have been settled in the 17th–18th century, documented several periods and uses of the property. Archaeologists suggested the possibility of prehistoric usage of the area. There were three agricultural occupations: first, by a tenant farmer; second, by Preston plantation of the Alexander family, which sustained troop occupation during the Civil War; and, third, by the Fendall family farm. The Alexander and Fendall properties had accompanying family cemeteries, though the former’s burials were moved to Pohick Church in 1922; archaeologists recommended testing for remaining burials. The late-19th-century suburban neighborhood of St. Asaph’s Junction, with its associated railroad station, was also in this area. Archaeologists assessed the potential of the station’s foundations surviving as low but possible. The project area also had major transportation uses. The Alexandria Canal (1843–1887) made its way through most of Potomac Yard before turning east to the city. The area also played a role in rail transport. Its first line—Alexandria and Washington Railroad—was completed in 1857 and used by the United States Military Railroad during the Civil War. By the turn of the 20th century, it contained probably the largest railway classification yard in the U.S.—Potomac Yard—interchanging and classifying freight for five, then six, railroad companies—the first such yard in the country. This report included discussion of the study area’s architectural resources, such as the bunkhouse and engine house—the only two structures likely dating to the time of the original railyard. The report also mentioned the possibility of finding the archaeological remains of other structures as well as rail lines, shops, etc. (Note: Researchers also should review the two other reports for Potomac Yard.) 

More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard. 

Walker, Mark K., Madeleine Pappas, John Bedell, Janice Artemel and Heidy Fogel 

Alexandria Federal Courthouse (American Indian tool-making site; wagon yard; residence, including possible slave/tenant; farm; possible Civil War barracks and hospital or encampment and staging area; tavern; possible railyard; scrap metal company; landfill), 401 Courthouse Square, 44AX164 

Before constructing the U.S. Federal Courthouse, archaeologists completed two phases of investigation, located on property owned by the Oliver Carr Company and Norfolk Southern Railroad. Phase I documented the use and chain of title of the site from the late 18th through the first half of the 19th century, surmising that it perhaps was a Civil War encampment and staging area, though more likely the site of a barracks and hospital, then returning to residential and agricultural use after the war.  In 1897, Southern Railroad purchased property that included the site, erecting railyards and shops circa 1900 that may have extended into the site. In the 1950s, the railroad divided the land into leased parcels; the future courthouse site was occupied by the Alexandria Scrap Corporation, its tin press and temporary office buildings until the 1970s. There were landfill operations during this period, too. Phase II excavation turned up prehistoric artifacts, such as a base from a projectile point and other lithics, indicating a Late Archaic and Woodland period (3000 B.C.–1600 A.D.) camp for the procurement and manufacture of tools. Artifacts from the late 18th to the first half of the 19th century showed ongoing residential refuse disposal suggestive of a small residence or outbuilding, maybe that of tenant farmers, workers, or possibly slaves. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX164.) 

Walters, Patrick and Michael Clem 

Calvert Custom Homes (possible Civil War area), 3700, 3704, 3705, 3708, 3709, 3712, 3713, 3716, 3717, and 3721 Taft Avenue, 123 and 131 North Donelson Street 

Despite the presence of several Civil War sites within a half-mile of the project area, Phase I study of the 12 highly disturbed lots and adjacent stream restoration area yielded minimal findings. Some Civil War-era ammunition and metal objects, including a small brass buckle, suggested temporary occupation of the property by troops or troop movement in the area. 

Ward, Jeanne A. and John P. McCarthy 

Fox Haven Development (possible prehistoric area; residence; possible cemetery), 1820 North Howard Street 

Oral history dictated that at least three burials, dating to the late 1920s/early 1930s, of former inhabitants of the property were located in the project area. Archaeological investigation preceded development of the two-acre lot, which currently incorporated a frame house dating to the 1940s. Formerly there also was a frame garage and guest house. Digging turned up ceramics, bottle glass fragments, window glass, and nails—all apparently from the late 20th century or from unknown contexts. Archaeologists hypothesized that prehistoric materials would be present, but none were found. Areas not tested or excavated were recommended for construction monitoring. 

Christ Church Churchyard Wall Reconstruction (Anglican/Church of England then Episcopal church; cemetery), 118 North Washington Street, 44AX88 

Archaeologists monitored the removal of masonry elements on site during the reconstruction of a portion of the east churchyard wall, and identified, mapped, and photographed 12 graveshafts in the area of construction. (Identification errors resulted in the destruction of human remains and the loss of data in nine graves.) Also found was a brick footing, most likely associated with an earlier wall or structure removed to make way for this wall in the 1820s. There was no evidence of a mass grave of Confederate soldiers, despite an on-site monument’s assertion that one existed within the project area. Archaeologists contended that burials lay outside the churchyard, under the sidewalk and probably the roadway, meaning potentially hundreds of unmarked burials. During the reconstruction of a portion of the north churchyard wall, four graveshafts and a French drain materialized. By the west wall, there were 33 graves, represented by coffin remains or graveshafts. Four of these held human remains. (Researchers also should review the five other site reports for 44AX88—three prior and two later.) 

Watts, Gordon P., Jr. 

Waterfront, between Franklin and Oronoco streets and Oronoco Bay 

Prior to dredging and additional alteration of the waterfront, archaeologists performed underwater acoustic and magnetic remote sensing as well as a site identification survey. They found identifying historic anomalies in Oronoco Bay very difficult because of extensive modern debris. And, after locating seven potentially significant anomalies along the waterfront between Franklin Street and the bay, closer examination revealed these, too, were modern. Archaeologists called for monitoring of dredging and other ground disturbing activities. (Note: Researchers also should review Maritime Alexandria: An Evaluation of Submerged Cultural Resource Potentials at Alexandria, Virginia by Donald G. Shomette.)  

Westover, Allan R. 

  • 1994 - Phase I Archaeological Survey for the Handicapped Access Elevator Project at Aspinwall Hall, The Episcopal Virginia Theological Seminary in Alexandria, Virginia. Tellus Consultants Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.
  • 1991 - An Archaeological Survey Report on the Black Baptist Cemetery, Alexandria, Virginia. Tellus Consultants Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.
  • 1991 - Archaeological Testing of Block I, CNS Development Project, Alexandria, Virginia. Tellus Consultants Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.
  • 1990 - A Preliminary Report of Historic Archaeological Investigations at 900 King Street, Alexandria, Virginia. Tellus Consultants, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

900 King Street (store; coach house; residence), 44AX113 

The discovery of earthenware, interior-glazed syrup jars during demolition at this address precipitated archaeological excavation, which unearthed a brick-lined cellar filled with hundreds of sherds of syrup jars used in sugar refining, as well as other types of ceramics. A second feature, a refuse pit, included ceramic sherds, glass fragments, bone, fish scales, and metal fragments. More ceramic sherds, glass, bone, and metal objects emerged from a third test pit, tentatively identified as located in a parking area because of the presence of a hard-packed gravel layer. Archaeologists purported that the jars could have originated from the Moore-McLean Sugar House, located a half-block away from the site, or, if not directly deposited by the Sugar House, they also theorized that the sherds were discarded first at the Sugar House then re-deposited at this site when the Sugar House was torn down in 1839. William S. Moore, owner of the Sugar House from 1803/1804–1815, also owned this property from 1814–1825. (Note: Researchers also should review the site report for Sugar House [44AX96]. Additionally, researchers should read Barr, Cressey, and Magid’s 1994 article “How Sweet it Was: Alexandria’s Sugar Trade and Refining Business” in Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake.)  

Westover, Allan R. and David L. Miller 

  • 1991 - A Cultural Resource and Documentary Assessment for the Proposed CNS Partnership Development Project in Alexandria, Virginia. Tellus Consultants Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Wheelock, Perry Carpenter 

  • 1995 - Robert Hartshorne Miller 1798-1874: A Quaker Presence in Virginia. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 61.

Williams, Martha R. 

Cameron Mills, Cameron Farm (mill; mill race; residence; farm), Mill Road at Eisenhower Avenue, 44AX112 and 182 

Development by Hoffman Management, Inc., precipitated two phases of archaeological work over three years. The project area contained three sites: West Family Cemetery (44AX183), which was written up in a separate report; Cameron Mills (44AX112); and Cameron Farm (44AX182). There were two adjoining mills within 112 by 1798; one mill continued to operate until 1919 (it was demolished nine years later), the other was sold to Alexandria Water Company in 1851, remaining in operation until the mid-20th century. It pumped water to Shuter’s Hill, which was stored in a still-extant brick reservoir, then fed by gravity via lead pipes into town. Excavated were foundations of both mill buildings, portions of a mill race, and a small pier on the old shoreline of Hunting Creek. 182 included multiple residential structures and farm buildings. Features and foundations of these survived in the archaeological record. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for West Family Cemetery [44AX183] and Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley.)  

West Family Cemetery (cemetery), 2400 block of Mill Road, 44AX183 

Commercial development by Hoffman Management along the Eisenhower Avenue Valley Corridor precipitated the unearthing of the West family burial vault, seven associated burials, and seven graves outside the vault. Archaeologists monitored early excavation for utilities and discovered the brick burial vault. At least seven individuals had been buried in the vault, at least two of whom were interred in the 1780s. Osteological studies tentatively identified the remains of four individuals in the vault as Hugh West’s wife, Sybil, their son George and daughter Sybil, and her infant daughter. The Wests were founders of Alexandria and contributed greatly to early Virginia. The Wests’ large landholdings became West End Village. The burials outside the vault were in a poor state of preservation. Only four of the seven were preserved enough for study: two adult males, one adult female, and one infant. Archaeologists cautiously identified one of the males as an African American because of the discovery of a small crystal—common in African American burials. All were reinterred at Pohick Church. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for Cameron Mills, Cameron Farm [44AX112 and 182] and 1100–1900 Duke Street, including 44AX103 and 105.)  

Williams, Martha R. and David J. Soldo 

United States Patent and Trademark Office/Carlyle Project Block F (possible barn; railyard; landfill), 600 Dulany Street though the site encompassed the four blocks bounded by Jamieson Avenue, Carlyle Street, Eisenhower Avenue, and Elizabeth Lane, 44AX189 

Archaeologists studied the 22.9-acre Carlyle Project area slated as the United States Patent and Trademark Office relocation site. The three southernmost blocks of the site (J, M, and N) contained no archaeological resources because of extensive grading, filling, and waste disposal. (Prior to its use by the Norfolk Southern Corporation, it functioned as a landfill.) Block F, however, included: imprints of railroad ties from the Cameron Yards Southern Railroad, which expanded its lines here in 1897 then removed them; the remains of at least two 20th-century railroad structures and the bases of several early 20th-century privies; timber framing, possibly from a 19th-century barn; what appeared to be the sides of a wooden wagon and a well-preserved wagon wheel and a piece of the base of a ceramic washbasin bearing a maker’s mark from the latter half of the 19th century. This site report noted the proximity of the project area to other sites known to have been occupied by the United States Military Railroad during the Civil War, though there was no evidence of this found on site during the 2002 investigation. 

Williams, Martha R. and David J. Soldo and Katherine Grandine 

United States Postal Service Memorial Station Branch (butchery/slaughterhouse; residence; wagon yard; possible tavern), 2200–2210 Duke Street 

When the U.S. Postal Service proposed to substantially expand its facility at the 1.3-acre project area, archaeologists commenced testing and archival research. Testing turned up only a modern wall and 20th-century debris because the stratigraphy had been so altered by prior construction projects. The archives proved more illuminating. Thomas Wigham operated a butchery on the property by 1802 when he sold the land to Thomas Watkins who, along with his descendants, continued to run the business until after the Civil War. Wigham’s property also included a dwelling and storehouse. Additionally, Zimmerman’s Tavern (1841–1849) was thought to be located somewhere within the area, though archival evidence of this was minimal. (Before the tavern there was a dwelling, various outhouses, and a wagon yard.) David Watkins, Thomas’ son, supposedly operated a slaughterhouse here from 1850 to at least 1874 (labeled “D. Watkins” on late 19th-century maps). 

Ziegler, Danica L. and Thomas W. Bodor 

Washington Quartermaster Depot/Cameron Station/Clermont Avenue Interchange (possible prehistoric site; World War II Army Quartermaster Depot), 4700–5200 blocks of Duke Street, 44AX158 

The proposed Clermont Avenue Interchange precipitated a historical survey of the site in which archaeologists suggested its nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Covering 166 acres, the Army’s Washington Quartermaster Depot (later known as Cameron Station) comprised 22 structures, with 17 dating to the World War II period. A second building phase in the late 1950s/early 1960s raised a convenience store, guard house, pavilion, and service station. The World War II-era structures adhered to military construction standards for the time—concrete, brick, and frame rather than precious steel; buildings added after the war conformed to the style of these earlier structures. The focus of the facility was its eight warehouses, which in 1962 were converted into office space. The warehouse interiors were altered while the footprints were not, remaining essentially unchanged up to this 1991 study. In the 1990s the facility served as a commissary and Post Exchange System for Washington-area military personnel. Attached correspondence noted that the facility was to be closed and also that it was determined ineligible for the NRHP. The 1992 report testified to the site’s low archaeological potential because of the area’s large amounts of fill and historic wetlands environment. In 1998, because of a proposed housing development, geomorphological and archaeological investigations, specifically soil coring and shovel testing, took place, to find the historic grade beneath all the fill. From this horizon archaeologists found one piece of glass, one piece of metal, one quartzite flake, and two small debitage. The presence of these lithic artifacts, the site’s proximity to a stream, and the historic wetlands environment suggested that the area may have been occupied by American Indians in the past; however, the minimal findings and extent of disturbance at the site led archaeologists to conclude that no further study was warranted. (Note: Researchers also should review the report for Clermont Avenue Interchange.) 

Bryan Property/King’s Cloister (American Indian tool-making area; residence, including possible tenant; farm; possible barn/stable; domestic area), 2826 King Street 

Prior to residential development of the 4.5-acre project area, archaeologists carried out two phases of work. The first contained both prehistoric artifacts (lithics and ceramics) and 19th–20th-century domestic artifacts, primarily kitchen-related, while the second divulged architectural remains from a possible 19th-century barn or stable, thought to be an outbuilding of the extant 1820–1830 house. The second also had six features: two posts, two post molds, a drainage feature, and historic fill episode—all pointing to the existence of an outbuilding. Archival research revealed that the project area was once part of a larger farm or possibly plantation and that it at one time likely was occupied by a tenant.

Alexandria Archaeology Museum
105 N. Union Street, #327
Alexandria, VA 22314
703.746.4399
Fax: 703.838.6491
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