Main content
City of Alexandria Homepage
Thursday, November 27  •  46°Mostly Cloudy Air Quality: Yellow
CloseWeather Forecast
Today: High 43° Low 29°
Partly CloudyAir Quality: Yellow
Fri: High 39° Low 29°
Mostly SunnyAir Quality: Yellow
Sat: High 47° Low 38°
Partly CloudyAir Quality: Yellow
Sun: High 60° Low 47°
Mostly SunnyAir Quality: Yellow
Mon: High 63° Low 34°
Mostly Sunny
Alert
Thanksgiving Holiday Schedule of Services -- Updated 11/25/2014 10:55:23 AM
All City of Alexandria government offices will be closed on Thursday, November 27, and Friday, November 28, in observance of the Thanksgiving Day holiday. Residential trash and recycling will be collected on Thanksgiving Day, November 27, beginning at 6 a.m.
Read More...
City of Alexandria, VA City of Alexandria, VA
Alexandria Archaeology Museum
Share Share RSS RSS Print Print Text Size Text Size NormalText Size LargeText Size Extra Large
Page updated Jan 31, 2014 10:19 AM
CloseComments

No Comments Posted Yet

Alexandria Archaeology Bibliography

G-L

Return to Bibliography index page 

 


Gardner, William M. and Gwen Hurst 

Bush Hill (possible prehistoric site; residence; farm; railroad; Civil War encampment), 4840 Eisenhower Avenue, 44AX111 

Through documentary study and walkover reconnaissance of the 10.67-acre former plantation, archaeologists determined that, of the site’s four survey areas, three warranted further attention: B, where, despite Eisenhower Avenue construction impact, prehistoric or Civil War finds were possible; C, where outbuilding foundations and features were expected; and D, where there were Civil War encampments and possibly the estate’s gardens and outbuildings. Area A was too highly disturbed to justify future survey. Additional disturbances included railroad rights-of-way through the property. This last known plantation site in the city was thought to have been built in 1763; it was destroyed by arson in 1977, when it functioned as the Holly Hill School. Following this preliminary investigation, archaeologists completed three phases of testing and excavation. Despite deep fill horizons, exposed were foundations, a brick walkway, front yard stairway, and midden—the only in-situ deposit of the earliest phase of the main house’s occupation. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX111 and the report for Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley.) 

Gardner, William M., Gwen Hurst and Kimberly A. Snyder 

118 King Street (wharf; commercial/industrial area; residence; possible inn or tavern) 

Three phases of archaeological investigation ascertained that the project area was originally in the crescent bay around which Alexandria was developed. John Fitzgerald and Valentine Peers made the south side of the 100 block of King Street by “banking out” from the bluffs. This block was commercial and residential. Despite the lack of context created by the watery environment archaeologists dated the numerous recovered artifacts from the late 18th to the early 19th century and characterized them as either refuse or representative of wharf activities, possibly even of a nearby inn or tavern. Found were sherds of pottery, glass bottles, tumblers, windowpanes, mortar, and wood; fragments of leather, brick, plaster, bone, teeth, pipes, and sheet iron; clam and oyster shell pieces; nails; a large oval-handled wash pan; flaked shale tool; and black English flint spall. Perhaps most interesting were the gaming stones, thought to be associated with a West African game, thereby suggesting the presence of slaves at the wharf. (Note: Researchers also should review the site report for Fitzgerald’s Wharf [44AX146]. For a more recent study, researchers should read “Fitzgerald’s Warehouse: King and Union Streets” by Diane Riker [2008], one of the Office of Historic Alexandria’s Studies of the Waterfront.)  

Gardner, William M., Gwen J. Hurst and John P. Mullen 

Bush Hill (possible prehistoric site; residence; farm; railroad; Civil War encampment), 4840 Eisenhower Avenue, 44AX111 

Through documentary study and walkover reconnaissance of the 10.67-acre former plantation, archaeologists determined that, of the site’s four survey areas, three warranted further attention: B, where, despite Eisenhower Avenue construction impact, prehistoric or Civil War finds were possible; C, where outbuilding foundations and features were expected; and D, where there were Civil War encampments and possibly the estate’s gardens and outbuildings. Area A was too highly disturbed to justify future survey. Additional disturbances included railroad rights-of-way through the property. This last known plantation site in the city was thought to have been built in 1763; it was destroyed by arson in 1977, when it functioned as the Holly Hill School. Following this preliminary investigation, archaeologists completed three phases of testing and excavation. Despite deep fill horizons, exposed were foundations, a brick walkway, front yard stairway, and midden—the only in-situ deposit of the earliest phase of the main house’s occupation. (Note: Researchers also should review the other site report for 44AX111 and the report for Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley.) 

Gardner, William M. and Jennifer Schmidt 

First Baptist Church (Baptist church), 2932 King Street 

Before parking lot construction and road widening, Phase I archaeological testing on the seven-acre playing fields and picnic areas resulted in the discovery of one prehistoric flake from the plowzone and seven historic artifacts, including a whiteware sherd, lead pellet, and five bottle glass fragments from fill. Much of the project area had been filled to level the ground for church recreational activities. Archaeologists recommended no additional work.

Gardner, William M. and Kimberly A. Snyder 

  • 2001 - Phase I Archeological Investigations of the Proposed Northampton Place Apartments, Alexandria, Virginia. Thunderbird Archeological Associates, Inc., Woodstock, Virginia.

Gardner, William M., Kimberly A. Snyder, and Tammy Bryant 

Stonegate Parcel C (American Indian tool-making site), 4600 West Braddock Road, 44AX176 and 177 

Phase III archaeological excavation at site 44AX177 yielded over 17,000 prehistoric artifacts. It was one of only a few intact prehistoric sites discovered at the time in Alexandria. The site represented four use periods, spanning from the Halifax phase at the end of the Middle Archaic (3600–2500 B.C.) to the Late Woodland (900–1700 A.D.) period, though remains dated primarily to the Holmes phase of the Late Archaic (1800–1200 B.C.) period. Additionally, archaeologists recovered 26 prehistoric artifacts from nearby site 44AX176, making it a peripheral activity area associated with 177. (Note: Researchers also should review the five other reports for Stonegate—three prior and two later.)

Gardner, William M., Kimberly A. Snyder, Tammy Bryant and Gwen J. Hurst 

Stonegate Parcel C (possible tenant residence; farm), 4600 West Braddock Road, 44AX177 

The archaeological record in this Phase III exploration showed architectural and artifactual evidence of a residence dating to circa 1790–1830. The absence of finery among the ceramic and glass sherds and other cultural remains pointed to lower-middle- to middle-class occupants, probably tenant farmers of Ludwell Lee, Benjamin Dulany, or Thomas Watkins. This was further supported by the house’s log construction, as opposed to more expensive brick, supported by the deficiency of building nails. (Note: Researchers also should review the five earlier reports for Stonegate and the site report for Mark Center/Winkler Botanical Preserve [44AX162 and 163].) 

Stonegate Parcel C (American Indian tool-making site; possible tenant residence), 4600 West Braddock Road, 44AX177 

Phase II excavation unearthed the circa 1790–1830 residence, identified as a possible log structure. Archaeologists purported that tenants of Ludwell Lee, Benjamin Dulany, or Thomas Watkins lived there. Found at the site were: middens containing ceramic, glass, oyster shells, and other refuse, a possible summer kitchen, domestic artifacts, including some luxurious items like china, and numerous unrelated prehistoric lithics. (Note: Researchers also should review the five other reports for Stonegate—two prior and three later.) 

Gardner, William M., Kimberly A. Snyder, and Gwen J. Hurst 

Van Dorn Street Metro Station (residence; possible cemetery; railroad), 5651–5701 Eisenhower Avenue, 44AX178 

A Phase I study of these 11.5 acres discovered intact structural remains and refuse from a 1820s–1840s occupation. Architectural finds pointed to a large brick house, and expensive ceramics suggested fairly well-off inhabitants. The structure was razed, probably in the 1850s or 1860s, to make way for the railroad. An unused railroad bed, predating the Civil War, was found on site; archaeologists connected it to site 44AX54, lying just outside the project area. Phase II work was recommended to more fully investigate and preserve evidence and search for a possible cemetery. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley and Eisenhower Avenue Earthwork Site/Van Dorn Street Metro Station [44AX54].) 

Gardner, William M., Kimberly A. Snyder, Gwen Hurst, Joan M. Walker and John P. Mullen 

Spring Garden/Old Town Village (possible prehistoric area; residence; farm; resort; Orange and Alexandria Railroad; United States Military Railroad, Civil War), 1000–1100 Duke Street 

Archaeologists expected to focus on the Civil War-era United States Military Railroad complex, but investigations resulted in five periods: prehistoric; 1690–1800; circa 1800 to early 1850s (Spring Garden and Orange and Alexandria Railroad); early 1850 to mid-1861 (military takeover of railroad); 1861–1865 (Civil War); and post-1865. Much of the project area’s topography was altered, but some major features were discovered: a circa 1805–1850 well, an octagonal United States Army Engineers privy, used during the Civil War and into the 1890s—the largest found to date in Alexandria—and the foundations of a pre-war house, which functioned as a hospital during the war. It contained some remarkably well-preserved artifacts, including fragments of fabric and leather. (Note: Researchers also should review the other report for Spring Garden and the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, including 44AX103 and 105, Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company, and Whole Foods/Royalton Project [44AX190].) 

Gardner, William M. and Michael Clem 

Christ Church Churchyard Wall Reconstruction (Anglican/Church of England then Episcopal church; cemetery), 118 North Washington Street, 44AX88 

Archaeologists monitored the removal of masonry elements on site during the reconstruction of a portion of the east churchyard wall, and identified, mapped, and photographed 12 graveshafts in the area of construction. (Identification errors resulted in the destruction of human remains and the loss of data in nine graves.) Also found was a brick footing, most likely associated with an earlier wall or structure removed to make way for this wall in the 1820s. There was no evidence of a mass grave of Confederate soldiers, despite an on-site monument’s assertion that one existed within the project area. Archaeologists contended that burials lay outside the churchyard, under the sidewalk and probably the roadway, meaning potentially hundreds of unmarked burials. During the reconstruction of a portion of the north churchyard wall, four graveshafts and a French drain materialized. By the west wall, there were 33 graves, represented by coffin remains or graveshafts. Four of these held human remains. (Note: Researchers also should review the five other site reports for 44AX88—two prior and three later.)  

General Services Administration 

  • 1992 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Naval Systems Command Consolidation. Volume I and Volume II - Appendices.

Goode, Charles and Peter Leach 

Greenly, Mark D. 

Hahn, Thomas F. 

  • 1982 - The Industrial Archaeology of the Tide Lock and Pool No. 1 of the Alexandria Canal.
  • 1982 - Maritime Historical Report for Alexandria Canal Tide Lock Project.

Hahn, Thomas Swiftwater and Emory Kemp 

  • 1992 - The Alexandria Canal: Its History and Preservation. West Virginia University Press. Order from Museum Shop 

Henley, Laura 

  • 1991 - Archaeological Data Book for Alfred Street Baptist Church 301/303 South Alfred Street, Alexandria, Virginia. Robert J. Nash & Associates, Oxon Hill, Maryland.

Hill, Phill 

  • 2009 - A Suspended Phase I Archæological Survey of the Location of a Proposed Telecommunications Facility (WAC357A) Located at the Virginia Theological Seminary, 3737 Seminary Road, Alexandria, Virginia. Archæological Testing and Consulting Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland.

Historic Alexandria, Office of 

  • n. d. - Nomination of Hoof’s Run Railroad Bridge to the National Register

Holland, Kerri, Cyntia V. Goode, Charles F. Good and Joseph F. Balicki 

  • 2010 - Archeological Evaluation Associated with Utility Improvements and New Central Plant Facility, Virginia Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Virginia. John Milner Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia. 

Holland, Kerri, Lynn D. Jones, and Charles Cheek 

Hurst, Gwen J. 

Fitzgerald’s Wharf (dock and pier; warehouse; store), 104 South Union Street (previously 101 Wales Alley), 44AX146 

Archaeologists undertook an archival study of a parking lot. The Seaport Inn and Restaurant, on the west side of the project area, was known as Fitzgerald’s Warehouse in the late 18th century and Irwin’s Warehouse in the 19th century. The site was a wharf this whole time. In 1877, there was a brick building on site. From 1885–1907, it functioned as a “Junk and Rags Warehouse” then, from 1907–1912, a second-hand store. It was vacant from 1921–1941. In 1958, records showed an empty lot so the building had been demolished by this time. (Note: Researchers also should review the report for 118 King Street.) 

Jenkins, Virginia 

  • 1994 - A Brief History of the Stabler Family and the Stabler-Leadbeater Apothecary Shop. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 26.  
  • 1986 - Edward Stabler, A Kind Friend and Counsellor. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 27.

Jenkins, Virginia and Sara Revis 

  • 1995 - Block Profile: The North Side of the 200 Block of Wolfe Street and Lot Profile: 209 Wolfe Street Property (44AX56). Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 41. 

Jirikowic, Christine, Gwen J. Hurst and Tammy Bryant 

1400 Janney’s Lane (residence; Civil War encampment), 44AX191 

Located on property known as Stump Hill, Oak Hill, or Oak Grove, the approximately six-acre site served two primary purposes until its most recent use by the Second Presbyterian Church. Residential occupation began in 1832 with the construction of a house, though because of disuse the structure fell into disrepair. It was destroyed and a new house with outbuildings built in the 1850s. Yet another house went up in 1911. The site’s second function was as a Civil War-era encampment, well centered between Fort Williams, gun batteries, and rifle pits and directly adjacent to a hospital. The archaeological record revealed domestic artifacts like ceramic sherds, architectural fragments, food waste, and large amounts of coal and slag, speaking to the site’s first purpose. (Union camp refuse, that is, glass bottles, bullets, and metal hardware associated with military uniforms and equipment, also was found.) Also found was a brick foundation, probably belonging to either the 1832 or 1850s house, though the disturbed soils surrounding it prevented its dating. (Note: Researchers also should review the site report for 206 North Quaker Lane [44AX193].) 

206 North Quaker Lane (residence; farm; Civil War encampment and possible hospital), 44AX193 

Tobacco importer Josiah Watson’s property, Stump Hill, was subdivided after he filed for bankruptcy in the late 1790s. Two roads were created through the property, providing access to the lots; one of these was today’s Quaker Lane. On the west of this thoroughfare lay the Cooper family plantation, Cameron, also known as Cooper’s Hill and, by Union soldiers, Traitor’s Hill or Fort Traitor (44AX199). Excavation here turned up a brick Crimean Oven, which likely would have heated the camp hospital tents. It was preserved, making it the only feature of its kind ever discovered. The feature resembled that found at the Quaker Ridge site on Duke Street (44AX195). Also discovered was 19th-century artifact scatter, including bottle glass fragments mostly from alcoholic beverage bottles, metal hardware associated with uniforms and equipment, munitions, ceramics, and architectural materials. The high proportion of refined versus utilitarian ceramics indicated higher status personnel, that is, officers. Archaeologists purported that the 38th New York infantry regiment camped here; they were stationed in the area in the winter of 1861. Archaeologists recommended no additional work due to extensive disturbance by relic hunters. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for 1400 Janney’s Lane [44AX191], Quaker Ridge [44AX195], and Weicking Property.) 

Elliot House (residence), 323 South Fairfax Street, 44AX192 

The house was built by 1842, then occupied by the household of Charles Unruh, who sold it in 1855. It sustained various additions after its sale, though the main house was virtually untouched. The Old Presbyterian Meeting House, which took control of the property in 1979, planned to build a partly subterranean addition to the house, so archaeologists excavated in the rear and north yards prior to construction, discovering a number of features including a cistern and well, both dating to the Unruh occupation or earlier. The cistern apparently was abandoned long before the well; it was filled after 1848. Artifacts included food refuse, ceramics, bottle glass, glass tableware, chimney lamp glass, windowpane glass, nails, and personal items. The well was not abandoned and filled until after 1910. It contained bottle glass primarily, some ceramics and personal items, and large quantities of oyster shells and furnace/stove waste. 

John Cullinane Associates 

Keith’s Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford’s Landing/“Old Ford Plant” (automobile plant; gun factory; warehouse), 600 block of South Union Street, 44AX119 

This architectural assessment provided a history of the site’s ten extant structures built after 1932 by Ford or the United States government (specifically the Navy) and recommended buildings for restoration and demolition. Ford occupied the project area from 1932–1942 with a plant designed by Albert Kahn for automobile assembly and shipping, a boiler building, water tower, and underground tanks. After buying the property from Ford in 1942, the U.S. government built an extension in 1943 and used the complex as an annex to its Piney Point, Maryland, gun factory. The Navy then constructed a “machinist shop” in the early 1950s. After 1960, the site functioned as a government warehouse facility until it was sold for private development in 1984. (Note: Researchers also should review the three other site reports for 44AX119 and Breweries and Bottling Companies in the Washington Area by Engineering-Science, Inc.)  

John Milner Associates 

Christ Church (Anglican/Church of England then Episcopal church; cemetery), 118 North Washington Street, 44AX88 

This Historic Structure Report of the “Church of Alexandria,” built in 1773 and attended by George Washington, offered a detailed discussion of the evolution of the building, modeled after an English village church by designer James Wren, and its surroundings, including cemetery, enclosures, and walks. The churchyard served many functions, housing a residence, library, vestry house, school, and fire company engine house through the years, but, in 1853, these buildings were replaced by a two-story brick parish house. During the Civil War, the church functioned while other city churches were appropriated for military (non-religious) purposes. The report examined the church in 1979 compared to at completion in 1773 plus all modifications, repairs, and improvements in between. Finally, the report laid out restoration and preservation objectives for the historic property. (Note: Researchers also should review the five other site reports for 44AX88—one prior and four later.) 

Christ Church Churchyard Wall (Anglican/Church of England then Episcopal church; cemetery), 118 North Washington Street, 44AX88 

Christ Church was completed in 1773, with its earliest burials taking place by that time. It adhered to the model of an English village church. By 1809, most burials were banned, both for sanitation and space concerns. Before 1787, the churchyard was not enclosed, but was by 1806. Then, from 1829–1830, a wall and railing with an entrance gate went up along the public, or south, side. The church fenced the north and west sides in 1844 with board fencing; this was repaired after the war then kept up through three quarters of the 19th century. In 1898, a masonry and iron fence was erected. This documentary report advocated for archaeological fieldwork on site in an attempt to find the earliest churchyard enclosures. (Note: Researchers also should review the five later site reports for 44AX88.) 

Johnson, Edward and John Mullen 

Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company (residence), 1300 block of Duke Street 

Significant ground disturbance after the mid-20th century left next-to-no trace of the buildings and features that once stood in the project area. Archaeologists also monitored construction activities where earth-moving could expose artifacts or features still remaining. Revealed were three brick features: two brick foundations, built in the 1840s, and one brick-lined water filtration cistern, built between 1836 and 1852. The foundations were thought to be associated with the John P. Emerson house, demolished in 1953. These features were disturbed and partially destroyed in the construction of a service station (standing on the property until 2007). Archaeologists supervised the removal of the filtration cistern, which also showed signs of disturbance, recording the feature and collecting artifacts. It was cleared out in the early 1900s to be used solely for refuse, explaining the presence of late 19th- and 20th-century fill. (Note: Researchers also should review the other report for Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company and the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, including 44AX103 and 105, Spring Garden, and Whole Foods/Royalton Project [44AX190].) 

Johnson, Edward and Tammy Bryant 

More on Archaeology at Potomac Yard. 

Jones, Lynn D. et al. 

Kaye, Ruth Lincoln 

  • 1988 - Study of Local Maps and Plats for the Potomac Yard Property.

Ketz, K., Anne & Theresa Reiner 

Based on bottles and embossed bottle glass fragments excavated at the Old Ford Plant site on the Alexandria waterfront, archaeologists formulated this reference document on breweries, bottlers, and dairies in the Washington, D.C., area, dating from the second half of the 19th century until World War II. This report also included preliminary research on Maryland brewers and bottlers. (Note: Researchers also should review the updated comments associated with this document and the site reports for Keith’s Wharf/Battery Cove/Ford’s Landing/“Old Ford Plant” [44AX119].) 

KFS Historic Preservation Group and Jay F. Custer 

Washington Quartermaster Depot/Cameron Station/Clermont Avenue Interchange (possible prehistoric site; World War II Army Quartermaster Depot), 4700–5200 blocks of Duke Street, 44AX158 

The proposed Clermont Avenue Interchange precipitated a historical survey of the site in which archaeologists suggested its nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Covering 166 acres, the Army’s Washington Quartermaster Depot (later known as Cameron Station) comprised 22 structures, with 17 dating to the World War II period. A second building phase in the late 1950s/early 1960s raised a convenience store, guard house, pavilion, and service station. The World War II-era structures adhered to military construction standards for the time—concrete, brick, and frame rather than precious steel; buildings added after the war conformed to the style of these earlier structures. The focus of the facility was its eight warehouses, which in 1962 were converted into office space. The warehouse interiors were altered while the footprints were not, remaining essentially unchanged up to this 1991 study. In the 1990s the facility served as a commissary and Post Exchange System for Washington-area military personnel. Attached correspondence noted that the facility was to be closed and also that it was determined ineligible for the NRHP. The 1992 report testified to the site’s low archaeological potential because of the area’s large amounts of fill and historic wetlands environment. In 1998, because of a proposed housing development, geomorphological and archaeological investigations, specifically soil coring and shovel testing, took place, to find the historic grade beneath all the fill. From this horizon archaeologists found one piece of glass, one piece of metal, one quartzite flake, and two small debitage. The presence of these lithic artifacts, the site’s proximity to a stream, and the historic wetlands environment suggested that the area may have been occupied by American Indians in the past; however, the minimal findings and extent of disturbance at the site led archaeologists to conclude that no further study was warranted. (Note: Researchers also should review the report for Clermont Avenue Interchange.)  

Klein, Terry H. and Mark R. Edwards 

  • 2002 - Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project Jones Point Park Archaeological Preservation Plan Alexandria, Virginia. Potomac Crossing Consultants. URS Corporation, Florence, New Jersey.

Knepper, Dennis A. and Marilyn Harper 

  • 1991 - Maritime Archaeology at Keith's Wharf and Battery Cove (44AX119): Ford's Landing, Alexandria, Virginia. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Knepper, Dennis A. and Madeleine Pappas 

  • 1990 - Cameron Mills: Preliminary Historical and Archaeological Assessment of Site 44AX112, Alexandria, Virginia. Engineering-Science, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Knepper, Dennis A. and Kimberly Prothro 

Roberdeau’s Wharf/Harborside (distillery; wharf; warehouse; sail loft; brewery; shipyard; foundry; Civil War complex including warehouses and freed black/contraband residence; coal yard; railyard; power plant), 400 South Union Street, 44AX114 

Most of the 3.5-acre waterfront lot was made-land, built as a wharf in the late 18th century, and serving as a commercial wharf and shipyard into the 19th century, including a brewery, foundry, and locomotive works. An electric power plant functioned in the first half of the 20th century. Archival research plotted ownership and usage of the property, beginning with Daniel Roberdeau’s rum distillery in 1774. By the 1790s, Roberdeau extended the wharf into the water, switching over to the businesses of shipping and trade. By 1791, the distillery served as a warehouse and sail loft. The distillery was referred to as a brewhouse in the early 19th century. By 1803, Roberdeau leased land south of the distillery to John Hunter, to be used as a shipyard—one of the earliest in Alexandria. The facility, which operated until after 1850, had a small number of enslaved African Americans who may have lived within the project area, though the archaeological record did not support this. The foundry opened around 1829 and closed in 1857. After the Civil War, only the foundry and a few outbuildings still stood. These structures served as storehouses and freed black/contraband quarters during the war. Next came the coal yard and the establishment of railroad tracks, linking these and other industries to the waterfront. By 1907, the power plant had opened. Excavation turned up wood planking with a compressed wood chip and pine tar surface (wharf), portions of brick furnace and coal bin (brewery), and remains of various buildings related to the power plant. Artifacts included: ceramic and glass fragments, a few whole or nearly complete glass vessels, pipe fragments, and a bayonet, but primarily architectural materials, such as window glass, nails, wooden planks, and small wooden objects. Archaeologists unearthed one prehistoric stone tool thought to have been discarded or washed in from a nearby site. 

Koski-Karrell, Daniel 

Moore-McLean Sugar House (sugar refining factory; residence), 111 North Alfred Street, 44AX96 

From circa 1804–1828 the factory, run by William Moore then Daniel, followed by son Samuel, McLean, operated on what are today lots 111–123 N. Alfred St. Prior to the construction of an addition to the property, archaeological excavation exposed brick building foundations and coarse whiteware used in sugar refining. In addition, archaeologists discovered domestic artifacts related to the residential occupation of the site beginning in 1841. (Note: Researchers also should review the site report for 900 King Street [44AX113]. Additionally, researchers should read Barr, Cressey, and Magid’s 1994 article “How Sweet it Was: Alexandria’s Sugar Trade and Refining Business” in Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake.) 

Mount Ida/North Ridge Neighborhood/Colonial Park, First Addition (prehistoric site; farm; residence), 2404 Russell Road, 44AX168 

A residential development led to an archaeological study of the four acres, including historical background and fieldwork, prior to any ground-disturbing activity. The Mount Ida house was built between 1800–1808 by Charles Edward Alexander, Jr., as the main residence of the Mount Ida farm, which survived into the early 20th century when the land was subdivided, creating the North Ridge neighborhood. The house existed as a single-family dwelling until it was purchased in 1942 by an order of nuns who enlarged it into a convent and built a school on the property. After 1991, the convent and school passed to separate owners. Research showed that 19th-century occupation was primarily intermittent and prior to the Civil War and that there was more intensive occupation afterward. This was reflected in the archaeological record; most artifacts dated post-1840 and predominately post-1880. Also discovered were a handful of prehistoric artifacts, not representative of a tool-making site. 

Kraus, Lisa, John Bedell and Charles LeeDecker 

Bruin Slave Jail (residence; slave jail), 1707 Duke Street, 44AX172 

Before redevelopment of the property, all modern structures were demolished and fill removed, leaving a circa 1820 two-story brick house. Slave trader Joseph Bruin operated a slave-trading establishment here (1844–1861). He purchased several people who attempted to escape aboard the schooner Pearl in 1848, including Emily and Mary Edmonson, and he inspired some of the characters and incidents in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Archaeological excavation turned up pre-Civil War artifacts as well as features indicating slave quarters and a separate kitchen for the slaves along with a brick cistern, which served the jail and wash house. (Archaeologists suggested in this site report that there were several other structures on the property inhabited and/or used by Bruin’s slaves.) Following their capture, the Edmonson sisters occupied both the jail and wash house, probably using water from the cistern to wash clothes. A storage pit near or inside the slave quarter included artifacts suggestive of a hoodoo ritual deposit, providing some insight into the personal and spiritual lives of Bruin’s slaves. The kitchen midden contained animal bones, ceramics, and other artifacts. In addition, the discovery of stylish ceramics dating to the 1840s and 1850s in the slave jail implied a close association between the jail and Bruin house. (The cistern is preserved, and a sculpture honoring the Edmonson sisters has been erected.)    

Kreisa, Paul P., Jacqueline M. McDowell and Mathew Gill 

1604–1614 King Street (possible prehistoric area; tenant residence; residence; commercial/industrial area) 

The 0.4-acre project area contained six townhouses. This Phase IA report documented the use of the property from agricultural (pasture for livestock grazing) to residential (a 19th-century tenement then townhouses built between 1913–1918) to commercial after 1959. Its proximity to Hoof’s Run increased its potential to include prehistoric resources. 1614, which suffered substantial damage in a 1999 fire, was to be demolished entirely or at least partially while 1604–1612 were to be retained and returned to residential use. Developers planned to put in a new residence plus underground parking at the rear of the study area. 

  • 2006 - Phase IA Archaeological Assessment of 1604-1614 King Street Properties, Alexandria, Virginia. Greenhorne & O-Mara, Inc., Laurel, MD. 

Landes, Robin S. and Joanna T. Moyar 

  • 1996 - Archaeologists at Work: A Teacher’s Guide to Classroom Archaeology. Second Edition. Alexandria Archaeology Publications, No. 48.

Larrabee, Edward McM. 

Fort Ward (Northwest Bastion of Civil War fort), 4301 West Braddock Road, 44AX90 

Archaeological excavation in 1961 spurred the restoration of the fort’s Northwest Bastion the following year and the subsequent ongoing preservation of the site. Excavation recovered few artifacts (Gabion wire and cut spikes), but exposed multiple features, including the earth structures of the filling room and powder magazine as well as the parapet, drainage ditch, gun embrasures, and platforms. Investigation revealed two details: first, that the site expanded between 1861–1865 and, second, that the timber beams used in the construction of the earth structures were carefully removed from the site for reuse circa 1866. Archaeologists cited the fort as an example of Civil War military engineering at its finest. (This was the first archaeological project in Alexandria.) (Note: Researchers also should review the site report for “The Fort” Neighborhood/Fort Ward Historical Park, Old Grave Yard [44AX90 and 153].) 

More on Archaeology at Fort Ward 

Leach, Peter A. and Sarah Traum 

LeeDecker, Charles 

Christ Church Wheelchair Ramp Construction (Anglican/Church of England then Episcopal church; cemetery), 118 North Washington Street, 44AX88 

In monitoring the construction of a wheelchair ramp, archaeologists came across what appeared to be seven graveshafts in the northern portion of the site. There were no archaeological resources in the southern half. The graveshafts included one possible infant burial and one possible vault-style grave because of its larger size. The graves were preserved in-situ through filling with gravel and reinforced concrete, creating a foundation for the ramp. (Note: Researchers also should review the five earlier site reports for 44AX88.) 

LeeDecker, Charles H. and Amy Friedlander 

  • 1985 - Archaeological Survey of Proposed Bike Path, Foot Path, and Soccer Fields at Jones Point Park, Alexandria, Virginia. Louis Berger & Associates, Inc., East Orange, New Jersey.

LeeDecker, Charles and John Bedell 

Whole Foods/Royalton Project (residence; tenant residence; bakery; grocery store; automobile dealership; automotive paint shop; shopping center), 1700 block of Duke Street, 44AX190 

In 2003 archaeologists accomplished two phases of study—research then digging—on the site’s approximately 1.65 acres prior to the imminent construction of a Whole Foods and residences on top of what had been a shopping center and parking lot from 1959–2002. Construction also was to include the removal of a grassy island, sidewalk widening, installation of underground utilities, and surface grading. During the initial phase, archaeologists established a complete chain of title, recording the various functions of the site over time: first, residential, including tenant occupation, then commercial, beginning with a bakery in the late 18th to early 19th century, then, by 1924, a grocery store, followed by a automobile dealership, automotive paint shop, and lastly the shopping center. John West, Jr. sold a lot to John Limerick in 1797, which he then subdivided. The larger lot became 1724 Duke St., the smaller one 1718. A house stood on the 1724 lot by 1804, but there was no good record of a house on the smaller lot until 1902. Excavation in the mid-1980s of the 1100–1900 blocks of Duke Street recovered the remnants of two late 18th- to early 19th-century buildings—one frame, one brick (identified as the Bontz site, 44AX103)—plus 19th- and 20th-century artifacts. Then, in 1988, excavation revealed fence postholes but more notably 24,000 ceramic and glass artifacts, pipe fragments, buttons, coins, marbles, and brick, dating to the late 18th/early 19th through the mid-20th century. Digging in 2003 exposed a 20th-century cellar, a brick wall that was probably part of a 19th-century house foundation, a 19th-century brick drain, and a brick-lined well similar to those built in the 19th-century along with 20th-century domestic artifacts. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for 1100–1900 Duke Street, including 44AX103 and 105, Fannon Petroleum Fuel Company, and Spring Garden.)  

Levinthal, Aaron 

  • 2009 - Architectural Survey of Proposed WAC357A Located at Aspinwall Hall within the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary (100-0123), 3737 Seminary Road, Alexandria, Virginia. Advantage Environmental Consultants, LLC, Jessup, Maryland.

Louis Berger & Associates, Inc.

Clermont Avenue Interchange (possible prehistoric area; World War II Army Quartermaster Depot), between Eisenhower Avenue and I-495 

Infrastructure improvements precipitated two phases of archaeological survey and testing.  This Phase IB report incorporated the results of the prior IA report in order to better contextualize the project area. Phase IA covered a large area of approximately three square miles. It identified a stream bed of possible prehistoric archaeological significance as well as one important historic structure—Cameron Station, a World War II-era Army Quartermaster Depot (44AX158)—that would be affected by construction. Phase IB further refined potential locations of archaeological sites and historic structures but deferred intensive fieldwork until a preferred route (from five possible alignments) was selected. It recommended further survey and also machine testing, focusing on the areas where construction was expected to penetrate through the fill into the natural landscape. (Note: Researchers also should review the site reports for Washington Quartermaster Depot/Cameron Station/Clermont Avenue Interchange [44AX158].) 

Washington Quartermaster Depot/Cameron Station/Clermont Avenue Interchange (possible prehistoric site; World War II Army Quartermaster Depot), 4700–5200 blocks of Duke Street, 44AX158 

The proposed Clermont Avenue Interchange precipitated a historical survey of the site in which archaeologists suggested its nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Covering 166 acres, the Army’s Washington Quartermaster Depot (later known as Cameron Station) comprised 22 structures, with 17 dating to the World War II period. A second building phase in the late 1950s/early 1960s raised a convenience store, guard house, pavilion, and service station. The World War II-era structures adhered to military construction standards for the time—concrete, brick, and frame rather than precious steel; buildings added after the war conformed to the style of these earlier structures. The focus of the facility was its eight warehouses, which in 1962 were converted into office space. The warehouse interiors were altered while the footprints were not, remaining essentially unchanged up to this 1991 study. In the 1990s the facility served as a commissary and Post Exchange System for Washington-area military personnel. Attached correspondence noted that the facility was to be closed and also that it was determined ineligible for the NRHP. The 1992 report testified to the site’s low archaeological potential because of the area’s large amounts of fill and historic wetlands environment. In 1998, because of a proposed housing development, geomorphological and archaeological investigations, specifically soil coring and shovel testing, took place, to find the historic grade beneath all the fill. From this horizon archaeologists found one piece of glass, one piece of metal, one quartzite flake, and two small debitage. The presence of these lithic artifacts, the site’s proximity to a stream, and the historic wetlands environment suggested that the area may have been occupied by American Indians in the past; however, the minimal findings and extent of disturbance at the site led archaeologists to conclude that no further study was warranted. (Note: Researchers also should review the report for Clermont Avenue Interchange.)  

Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley (possible prehistoric area; residence; farm; mill; mill race; distillery; brewery; tavern; Civil War entrenchments; railroad infrastructure), nearly 2,000 acres bounded by Duke Street, Holland Lane, I-95, and Van Dorn Street 

Archaeologists completed a preliminary evaluation of the extensive project area, performing field reconnaissance (not subsurface work) then making suggestions for future studies because of anticipated development, that is, the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. Also identified were buildings over 50 years old and those of potential historic architectural significance. Recognized sites within the study area’s boundaries included the Eisenhower Avenue Earthwork Site/Van Dorn Street Metro Station (44AX54) and Shuter’s Hill Brewery/Klein’s Brewery/Englehardt’s Brewery/Carlyle Project Area II-B (44AX35). Additionally, a prior 1970s study recorded ten more sites or features of interest: Bush Hill (early 19th-century Scott family plantation, 44AX111), an early 19th-century masonry mill foundation (potentially Cameron Mills, 44AX112), two other mills, a mill race, distillery, Catts’ Tavern, Civil War entrenchments, West End Village, and the settlement of Cameron. Predictive modeling suggested the presence of prehistoric material near the project area’s streams; these areas were declared subject to testing prior to any construction. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for the sites mentioned above, Van Dorn Street Metro Station [44AX178], and Robert Portner Brewing Company [44AX196].) 

Eisenhower Avenue Earthwork Site/Van Dorn Street Metro Station (railroad infrastructure), 5690 Eisenhower Avenue, 44AX54 

During a prior survey for the Franconia-Springfield Metrorail line, archaeologists found a possible Confederate fortification and associated encampment. Phase II work, because of a proposed Metro station parking lot, dug up one lead bullet—the only indication that the site may have been occupied during the Civil War, though it was Union not Confederate—along with railroad artifacts like bolts, nuts, spikes, and a bracket. While there was no physical evidence to support a fortification or encampment, there were archaeological resources suggestive of a haul road or access ramp for the Manassas Gap Railroad. (Note: Researchers also should review the reports for Cameron Run/Eisenhower Avenue Valley and Van Dorn Street Metro Station [44AX178].) 

Lowry, Sara 

“The Fort” Neighborhood/Fort Ward Historical Park, Old Grave Yard (cemetery), 4301 West Braddock Road, 44AX90 and 153 

The City of Alexandria’s ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey identified 38 possible unmarked burials in six known and potential cemetery and grave locations in “The Fort” (44AX90) and the Old Grave Yard (44AX153). “The Fort” was an historic African American neighborhood established on and around the Civil War Fort Ward, now Fort Ward Historical Park. “The Fort” dates from the Reconstruction period after the Civil War to the early 1960s when the park was created. The Old Grave Yard and other possible burial locations were selected based on documentary evidence and oral history. The survey area totaled approximately 37,500 square feet. GPR results assisted in identifying areas for archaeological testing in 2010. (Note: Researchers also should review the site report for Fort Ward [44AX90].)  

More on Archaeology at Fort Ward

Lynch, Anna 

  • 2001 - A Compendium of Early African Americans (Volume III). Transcriptions of Deeds Relating to Early Alexandria African American Churches. Alexandria Archaeology Publications. 
  • 1995 - A Compendium of Early African Americans (Volume II). Transcriptions of deeds relating to individuals. Alexandria Archaeology Publications.
  • 1993 - A Compendium of Early African Americans (Volume I). Index of early African Americans compiled from the 1787, 1799, 1800 & 1810 Census, Free Negro Registry (1799-1810), Records of the First Baptist Church (1803-1811) and Records of Trinity Methodist Church (1802-1816). Alexandria Archaeology Publications.

All volumes of the Compendium can be purchased online at The Alexandria Shop.

Alexandria Archaeology Museum
105 N. Union Street, #327
Alexandria, VA 22314
703.746.4399
Fax: 703.838.6491
Email 

Museum Hours
Tuesday - Friday, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.
Saturday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Sunday, 1 - 5 p.m
Monday, Closed

Office Hours
Tuesday - Saturday
9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
by appointment